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Canadian Criminal Law
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Table of Contents

Introduction: General Approach Critical: comparative, historical, contextual Dubber, Criminal Law in Comparative Perspective Part I. Fundamentals & Frameworks Chapter 1. The Province of Criminal Law A. Law and Police Dubber, Police Power Model of the Criminal Process Rousseau, Blackstone, Cyclopaedia of Political Science Morris, Persons and Punishment Fuller, Morality of Law Code of Service Discipline N.Y. Agric. & Mkts. Law § 121 B. Public Law and Private Law Dubber, Criminal Law Between Public and Private Law Linden & Feldthusen, Functions of Tort Law Assault in Crime and Tort - Tort, Crime, and Compensation for Victims McMurtry Report R. v. Cuerrier (snapshot); N.C. v. W.R.B.; Re Jane Doe (CICB) C. Criminal Law in Canada: The Canadian Criminal Code Friedland, Codification in the Commonwealth Linden, Recodifying Canadian Criminal Law Stephen, General View & Criminal Code Bill Commission, Report (1879) Stephen, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity (1874) Stephen, A History of the Criminal Law of England (1883) Self-Defense: A History in Codes Chapter 2. Theories and Concepts of Punishment A. Theories R. v. C.A.M. R. v. Christie U.S. Federal Sentencing Guidelines B. Concepts R. v. Lyons R. v. L.M. R. v. Cross Hörnle, "Human Rights Issues in the General Part of Substantive Criminal Law" Chapter 3. Sources and Limits of the Power to Punish A. POGG and Criminal Law Power Margarine Reference R. v. Hydro-Québec Constitution Act, 1867 (esp. ss. 91 & 92) Valverde, "Peace, Order, and Good Government" Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, First Imperial Police Ordinance (1530) N.Y. State Police Regulations, 1781-1801 B. Harm Principle R. v. Malmo-Levine Stephen, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Dubber, Rechtsgut and Harm Principle Chapter 4. Legality Principle (nulla poena) A. Rule of Law/Rechtsstaat Fuller, Morality of Law Dubber, The Principle of Legality B. Legislativity Frey v. Fedoruk Shaw v. DPP C. Specificity R. v. Nova Scotia Pharmaceutical Society D. Strict Construction/Lenity R. v. Robinson R. v. Paré R. v. McIntosh R. v. Sharpe R. v. L.B. E. Prospectivity Application under s. 83.28 of the Criminal Code F. Publicity R. v. Furtney G. Codification United Nurses of Alberta v. Alberta Chapter 5. Jurisdiction R. v. Stucky Davidson v. British Columbia Code of Service Discipline German Criminal Code Chapter 6. Analysis of Criminal Liability A. Three Levels of Liability Analytic Structure of Criminal Liability Dubber, Comparative Analysis of Criminal Liability Criminal Code Bill Commission, Report (1879) B. German Scheme Naucke, An Insider's Perspective C. Victim Compensation Scheme Dubber, "Analysis of Compensability" Compensation for Victims of Crime Act (Ont.) D. Tort Scheme Linden, Tort Defences & German Civil Code § 823 E. An Application: The Queen v. Dudley and Stephens The Queen v. Dudley and Stephens Part II. General Principles of Criminal Law Chapter 7. Actus Reus (Objective Offense Elements) A. Actness People v. Davis LRCC §§ 2(2) to 2(3)(a) MPC §§ 1.13(5), (9), 2.01 B. Voluntariness R. v. Larsonneur R. v. Shaw Hill v. Baxter LRCC § 3(1) MPC § 2.01 C. Omission R. v. Instan People v. Robbins State v. Miranda R. v. Browne Fagan v. Commissioner of Metropolitan Police R. v. Miller R. v. Thornton LRCC § 2(3) MPC § 2.01 StGB § 13 French Penal Code arts. 223-6, 7 StGB § 323c LRCC § 10(2) Quebéc Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms §§ 1, 2 D. Possession 1. Significance and Variety Dubber, "Policing Possession" Possession in the Canadian Criminal Code 2. "Actus Reus" An Act for the better preventing the counterfeiting the current coin of this kingdom, 1697, 8 & 9 Will. 3, c. 26 (Eng.). An Act for the better prevention of offences, 1851, 14 & 15 Vict., c. 19 (Eng.) R. v. Lennard R. v. Dugdale LRCC § 2(3) (comment) MPC § 2.01(4) Dubber, "Policing Possession" 3. Varieties of Possession a. actual (physical) R. v. Hess R. v. Beaver b. constructive (i) personal R. v. Christie (ii) joint R. v. Chambers 4. Presumptions R. v. Oakes Dubber, "Policing Possession" Chapter 8. Mens Rea (Subjective Offense Elements) A. Voluntariness and Culpable Mental States In the Matter of Ronnie L. B. Schemes of Mental States C. Definitions LRCC § 2(4) MPC § 2.02, N.Y. Penal Law § 15.05 StGB § 15 StGB (Alternative Draft) §§ 17, 18 D. The Boundaries of Intent: Varieties of Subjective Fault R. v. Lewis R. v. Dunbar R. v. Paquette R. v. Buzzanga MPC § 2.02(8) R. v. Hibbert R. v. Moo E. The Boundaries of Culpability: Subjective vs. Objective Fault R. v. G and another R. v. Tutton and Tutton R. v. Hundal R v. Beatty R v. De Ciantis F. Constitutional Constraints 1. Strict and Absolute Liability R. v. City of Sault Ste. Marie Reference Re: Section 94(2) of the Motor Vehicle Act R. v. Wholesale Travel Group Inc. Sayre, Public Welfare Offenses Morissette v. United States MPC §§ 2.02(3), (4), 2.05 2. Constructive Murder R. v. Vaillancourt R. v. Martineau LRCC § 6(3) MPC §§ 210.2, 210.3 StGB §§ 211-213 3. Foreseeability R. v. DeSousa R. v. Creighton Chapter 9. Causation R. v. Roberts R. v. Pagett R. v. Cheshire R. v. Smithers R. v. Blaue R. v. Cribbin R. v. Nette R. v. Sinclair People v. Kibbe LRCC § 2(6) MPC § 2.03 Chapter 10. Inchoate Crimes A. Attempt 1. Concepts and Types of Attempt LRCC § 4(3) StGB §§ 22-23 MPC §§ 5.01, 5.05(1) 2. Mens Rea R. v. Lajoie R. v. Ancio 3. "Actus Reus": Incomplete Attempts R. v. Cline R. v. Sorrell and Bondett R. v. Deutsch People v. Lehnert 4. Impossibility U.S.A. v. Dynar People v. Dlugash B. Counselling R. v. Hamilton LRCC § 4(4) MPC § 5.02 C. Conspiracy R. v. Dèry U.S.A. v. Dynar LRCC § 4(5) MPC § 5.03(1), (5), (6) Chapter 11. Liability for Another's Conduct A. Concepts and Types of Derivative Liability LRCC § 4(1), 4(2) StGB §§ 25-27, 29 MPC § 2.06(1)-(3), (6)(c) B. Complicity R. v. Dunlop and Sylvester R. v. Popen R. v. Dooley R. v. Logan R. v. Kirkness R. v. Hibbert R. v. Briscoe R. v. Hughes R. v. J.F. C. Abandonment R. v. Ball R. v. Gonzague People v. Staples StGB § 24 MPC §§ 2.06(6)(c), 5.01(4), 5.02(3), 5.03(6) N.Y. Penal Law § 40.10 D. Vicarious Liability (respondeat superior) R. v. Hawinda Taverns Ltd. E. Corporate Liability 1. Statutory Definitions of Personhood
Interpretation Act s. 35(1) Indian Penal Code s. II, s. 11
S. Afr. Close Corporations Act s. 2(2), 2(4)
Cal. Bus. & Prof. Act,
s. 302
Haw. Rev. Stat.
§ 701-118
N.Y. Penal Law
§ 10.00(7), 125.05

2. Foundations of Corporate Criminal Liability New York Central and Hudson River Railway Co. v. United States

Lennard's Carrying Co. v. Asiatic Petroleum Co.
Criminal Code of the Russian Federation
§ 4.19

Weigend, "Societas delinquere non potest?"
Beale, "A Response to the Critics of Corporate Criminal Liability"

3. Vicarious Liability Doctrine LRCC § 2(5) MPC § 2.07 People v. Congregational Khal Chaisidei Skwere, Inc. 4. Identification Doctrine

R. v. Waterloo Mercury Sales Ltd. R. v. Canadian Dredge and Dock Co. Ltd. et al. Tesco Supermarkets v. Nattrass

R. v. Safety Kleen Inc.
5. Corporations and the Charter
R. v. CIP Inc.

6. Reforms

A. Canada
CCC ss. 22.1 - 22.2

Archibald, Jull & Roach, "The Changed Face of Corporate Criminal Liability" R. v. Metron Construction Corp.
B. Australia
Criminal Code Act 1995 § 2(5)
C. UK
Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 s. 1
R. v. Lion Steel Equipment Ltd.

7. Other Corporate Liability Provisions: Overview

Albania
China
Finland
France
Germany
Iceland
Norway
South Africa
Switzerland


Chapter 12. Mistake & Intoxication	
	
	A. Mistake	 	
		1. Mistake of Fact		
		R. v. Rees		
		R. v. Metro News Ltd.	
		R. v. Pappajohn	
		R. v. Sansregret	
		R. v. Osolin 	
		R. v. Ladue	
		R. v. Burgess	
		R. v. Vlcko 	
		R. v. Kundeus		
			LRCC § 3(2)	
			MPC § 2.04(1) 
			StGB § 16		
		2. Mistake of Law		
		R. v. Campbell and Mlynarchuk	
		R. v. Ross 
			The Statutory Instruments Act	
		R. v. Molis	
		R. v. Pontes	
		R. v. Docherty 
		People v. Coe 
		R. v. Dalley 
		R. v. Forster 
		R. v. Jorgensen	 
		Lévis (City) v. Tétreault	
		R. v. Pena 
			LRCC § 3(7)	
			MPC § 2.04(3), (4)	
			StGB § 17		
	
	B. Intoxication	
	DDP v. Beard		
	DPP v. Majewski	
	R. v. Bernard 
	R. v. Daviault		
		LRCC § 3(3) 	
		MPC § 2.08 	
		StGB § 323a 	

Chapter 13. Justification								  
	
	A. Concepts and Types of Defense	
		Blackstone, Commentaries	
		Criminal Code Bill Commission, Report	
	R. v. Perka		
		Naucke, "An Insider's Perspective"
		LRCC ch. 3 	
		N.Y. Penal Law § 25	
	Patterson v. New York	
	R. v. Whyte	
	
	B. Protection of Persons Administering and Enforcing the Law 	
	R. v. Brennan		
		LRCC § 3(13)		
		MPC §§ 3.03, 3.07	
	
	C. Persons in Authority	
	Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth and the Law v. Canada	 
		LRCC § 3(14)	 
		MPC § 3.08 
	
	D. Self-Defense 
	R. v. Pétel 
	R. v. McIntosh 
	R. v. Pawliuk 
	R. v. Lavallee
	R. v. Deegan	
	R. v. Faid 
	R. v. Webers
	R. v. Baxter
		LRCC § 3(10) 
		MPC § 3.03	
		StGB §§ 32-33	
	
	E. Consent 	
	R. v. Jobidon		
	R. v. Cuerrier		
	R. v. Ewanchuk	
	R. v. Crangle 
		LRCC § 1(2) 
		MPC § 2.11	
	
	F. Necessity	
	The Queen v. Dudley and Stephens	
	R. v. Perka	
	R. v. Latimer		
		LRCC § 3(9)	
		MPC § 3.02	
		StGB § 34		

Chapter 14. Excuse		
	
	A. Incapacity ("Exemption")	
		1. Insanity			
		a.  Definition	
		R. v. Cooper 	
		R. v. Kjeldsen 
		R. v. Abbey	
		R. v. Kirkby	
		R. v. Schwartz
		R. v. Chaulk
		Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) 
		R. v. Whittle
			Stephen, 1879 Draft Bill 
			Criminal Code Bill Commission, 1879 Draft Bill 
			Canadian Criminal Code, 1892 
			Canadian Criminal Code (current)	
			LRCC § 3(6)	
			MPC § 4.01	
			StGB § 20	
		b. Defense (vs. Element of Liability vs. Symptom vs. Offense)	
		R. v. Saxell	
		R. v. Swain 	
		c.  Burden of Proof	
		R. v. Chaulk	
		People v. Kohl	
		d.  Diminished Responsibility	
		R. v. More 
		R. v. Wright	
			MPC §§ 4.02, 210.3(1)(b)	
			StGB § 21	
		e.  Irresistible Impulse	
		R. v. Borg		
		2. Infancy		
		R. v. Sawchuk 	
		R. v. Ogg-Moss	
			LRCC § 3(4)	
			MPC § 4.10	
			StGB § 19		
		3. "Insane Automatism"	
		R. v. Quick	
		R. v. Rabey	
		R. v. Parks		
		R. v. Stone		
	
	B. Inability	
		1. Duress	
		R. v. Carker (No. 2)
		R. v. Hibbert	
		R. v. Ruzic		
			LRCC § 3(8)	
			MPC § 2.09	
			StGB § 35		
		2. Provocation		
		R. v. Hill		
		R. v. Galgay	
		R. v. Thibert	
		R. v. Parent	
			MPC § 210.3(1)(b)	
			StGB § 213	
		3. Entrapment		
		R. v. Mack 
		R. v. Barnes 
			MPC § 2.13	
			N.Y. Penal Law § 40.05
		People v. DeGina	
			Ross, Tradeoffs in Undercover Investigations